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Re: 64/66 system benefits and ad-hoc agenda

Hi Rick,

    thanks for your detailed reply to my questions. I agree with the choice of
scrambling polynomial. I am not at all against scrambling, actually on the
I'm a proponent. I was just concerned about the short polynomial, but
that was just an illustrative example in your Hawai presentation. So no
there. I still have a question:

> It is good advice to use a longer polynomial.  However, I think the
> non-self-synchronized scrambler is unacceptably complex to implement
> unless absolutely needed.  Since a solid mathematical basis exists for
> choosing self-synchronizing scramblers, I propose to take the simple
> path.

Why do you think synchronizing a de-scrambler is complex? I was thinking of
a simple way this could be performed during the start-up. If you assume
that at start-up you are expecting to receive 66b blocks filled with idles,
and assuming
that you refer to idle caracters by the 0 byte (arbitrary choice). Then the
looks like:

                           scrambling bits s(k) (generated by G(x))
a(k)=0 (idle) -------( +)--------> output b(k)

+ denotes the XOR gate


On the receiver side:

                           de-scrambling bits s(k) (= b(k) during idle) using
same polynomial G(x)
            b(k) -------( +)--------> output a(k)=0

This means that on the receive side we are automatically receiving the seed
Simple start-up/synchronization procedure. No hassle. A 66b block is
for achieving synchornization provided that the polynomial is of degree < 64.


My point is that if there is a very simple synchronization mecanism (like the
example), then the above scrambling seems to be a better choice for the
following reasons:
1) self-synchronzing scramblers create error multplication. They require the
use of very long polynomials in order to reduce the interaction with the
CRC. Besides your reference of IBM paper, you could also refer to a Nortel
presentation on the SONET scrambler and interaction with CRC (Montreal
The problem with long polynomials is un-necessary increase in hardware
2) increase in latency (on the receive/descrambler side the received signal
has to go through
many registers, ex: N=63).
3) they require the choice of long polynomials to avoid lock-up conditions

The above scrambling scheme avoids all of the above problems. You will notice
it has no issue of lock-up, it has zero latency, no error multiplication at
all, and also
it allows the choice of lower degree polynomial than your currrent choice thus
gate count. It also gives more flexibility for chosing a scrambling
polynomial. This type of
scrambling has usually the drawback of either: sending the seed periodically
is not the case here as my example shows it), or require a synchronization
Again, in this case, that' not a problem since there is already a start-up
procedure in the 64b/66b anyway. Do you agree?